Black Sea, perfectly familiar to each of us from childhood, in fact, conceals in its depths a lot of amazing secrets, little-known and unique inhabitants, and they will be discussed in this article.
Due to the presence in the Black Sea of two differently directed currents: the upper with rich oxygen and the lower with hydrogen sulfide, life here is organized only in the upper layer, the thickness of which is no more than 100 meters from the water surface.
Who lives in the Black Sea?
In general, the depth of the Black Sea is about 2,250 meters. It is 90% filled with water with hydrogen sulfide, which gives a specific dark color. In hydrogen sulfide, as we know, nothing living thing is able to live and multiply.
It is because of the abundance of hydrogen sulfide in the lower layers of the sea water in the Black Sea is extremely poor flora and fauna. You certainly don’t find the incredible diversity of life present on the Great Barrier Reef off Australia here.
It is one of the common species of predatory mollusks, originally they lived in the Far East in the Sea of Japan, and in the 20th century were accidentally transferred to the Black Sea with Soviet military boats.
The rapana had no natural enemies there, so it caused significant damage to the fauna of the Black Sea. It began to eat large quantities of mussels, oysters, etc. Today it has moved to the Mediterranean Sea.
Rapana has a beautiful shell with a spectacular curl, can live up to 12 years, feeds on small mollusks. In the past, its shells were used to make souvenirs, but nowadays rapana is used to prepare a variety of dishes.
This is another family of mollusks, of which there are more than 250 species in the world’s oceans. Several species of these animals live in the Black Sea. They have round sashes that look like a fan.
The symbol of the Shell oil company is a scallop.
When in danger, scallops can jump and move sharply along the seabed; they are not afraid of crayfish. The meat of this clam is considered a delicacy, and the shells are often used to make souvenirs for tourists.
The scallop has a very tender, sweetish meat, it can be used to prepare various dishes of seafood, and you can eat it raw. There are especially many French national dishes with scallops.
Resitomas or cornerotes
Another living organisms that are found in the Black Sea. This is a species of jellyfish that is not dangerous to human life and health. Overbreeding of these animals can create problems for fishermen.
Resitomes reproduce by budding and insemination, eat plankton, a number of biologists believe that they are sometimes able to eat small fish, thanks to external digestion. Some cornerotes lead a secluded bottom-dwelling lifestyle.
And this Black Sea critter uses clam shells for its own protection. Sometimes crayfish are kicked out of their beautiful shells for this purpose. Hermit crayfish live near the sea, in the tidal zone.
Sea crayfish are predatory animals, feeding mainly on carrion, but also on mollusks, worms, dead fish, etc. As they grow, they periodically change their shells. Finding a new shell is often a matter of life and death for the cancer.
The next inhabitants of the Black Sea – the ordinary tail-coats or sea cats – one of the species of stingrays. They live close to the shore at depths of up to 50 m. Sea cats are predators, hunting crayfish, mollusks and small fish.
They are capable of inflicting rather painful punctures on humans with their poisonous spines, which are not really life-threatening. Their meat can be eaten, but on an industrial scale this type of stingray is not extracted.
The sea cat has been known to humans since antiquity; it was first scientifically described by Linnaeus. But to this day, science has studied these fish poorly.
They can be kept in huge aquariums and fed with small fish and sea worms.
These animals live in the Black Sea and eat crayfish and small fish. Sea ruffs have an interesting feature: about once a month they shed their worn skin, it comes off in a stocking.
The sea ruffe lives in the coastal zone. It is a predator, so it spends most of its life in the thickets of vegetation at the bottom of the sea, waiting for the next prey. Used to be extremely common in the Black Sea, today the population has decreased.
The sea ruff is very tasty meat, but it has spines that contain poison, so you should be as careful as possible when cleaning. Poison can cause serious pain and then inflammation. The sea ruff is another dangerous inhabitant of the Black Sea.
This animal in the Black Sea is a species of fish with a second name – the weasel. In length, crucian carp can reach 25 cm, they live in small flocks in depths of up to 50 m, near the shore.
During the cold season, sea carp go far into the sea and live near the bottom at considerable depth. They feed on marine vegetation and small crayfish. What is interesting about these crucians is that they can change sex, becoming either female or male.
These Black Sea dwellers have a long body up to 60 cm in scales and can reach a body weight of over 5 kg. The body of the fish has bony plates in one or more rows. With the help of its lower fins, the sea rooster can walk on the seabed.
They reach sexual maturity at the age of three, and spawning occurs in the summer. Sea roosters live in the coastal zone and hunt on the bottom. They have delicious meat, so they are extracted on an industrial scale.
This jellyfish lives in the Black Sea in coastal waters and has a translucent pale pink body. Eared aurelia is motile and reproduces by insemination, although there are also cases of budding.
Aurelia is widespread in the Black Sea, both near the coast and far from it. It is able to withstand severe temperature changes in air and water, as well as high salinity of seawater, so it is very tenacious.
Eared aurelia feeds mainly on plankton, immobilizing it with its sting cells and then sending it into its mouth.
There are cases of fairly severe burns of human skin and mucous membranes caused by this inhabitant of the Black Sea.
Widespread in the Black Sea fish, reaching a length of up to 30 cm. Their body is very narrow and looks like a needle. There is a shell with bone rings. Sea Needle comes in green or brown, so it is easy to hide under water.
For example, it can stand perpendicular to the seafloor, and the needle will be difficult to distinguish from the algae. This fish spawns throughout the spring and summer, and for several weeks the male carries the children in the folds of his body.
These Black Sea sea creatures look similar to the river perch, but have so many other differences with each other that they belong to completely different groups of fish. In addition, the sea bass is one of the dangerous fish in the Black Sea.
It has sharp fins equipped with poisonous glands. A single prick with such a fin causes a person, especially a child, quite unpleasant sensations, although not lasting, and not causing significant harm to health.
Sea bass tend to live on the bottom not far from the shore area, in the algae. Leads a sedentary lifestyle. Individuals can live up to several dozen years. The sea bass is a predator and feeds on small fish and crustaceans.
This fish is also found in the Black Sea, it is a real shark, and the most common in the world. There is a subspecies – the Black Sea shark or katran. Usually lives at the bottom of the sea, waiting for prey.
Catranes are not dangerous to humans.
The catrion has a streamlined body shape, it can reach a length of up to one and a half meters, but on average – no more than a meter. And females are larger than males. Due to its body shape and physical strength, katran is able to move with great speed.
Catriona meat is quite tasty, so it is popular in many countries. It can be eaten fresh and salted. In the USSR, commercial production of this fish was carried out, which significantly reduced the number of Catranians in the Black Sea.