The Pamirs are a giant mountain system located in southern Central Asia and north of the Himalayas. The Pamirs are occupied by several countries: Tajikistan, China, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The peoples of Central Asia call the Pamirs “the roof of the world” and “the foot of Mithras,” in the 18th and 20th centuries. it was this region that became the scene of the clash between Britain and the Russian Empire.
The “Seven Thousandths” of the Pamirs
The highest mountain of this giant mountainous country is located in the Eastern Pamirs in what is now China. It is called Kongur, and its height is 7,649 meters.
There are also many other “seven-thousanders” located here. For example, the former peak of Communism, the highest mountain in the former Soviet Union (today – in Tajikistan), its height – 7,495 meters.
The peaks of the Pamir Mountains are always covered with snow. Winters here are very cold, and summers are short and cool, i.e. The climate is continental. In the Central and Eastern Pamirs, temperature fluctuations are large and only increase to the east.
The average temperature in the Pamirs can vary from -20C to +5-+7C in a day in winter. This mountainous country is located in the subtropics, but in summer, judging by the humid air masses, it is the real tropics. In winter, the minimum temperature can be as low as -50C.
The average summer temperature is about +14C, the maximum is +20C. The warm season begins in May and ends in October. This statistic is very generalized, because. air temperature depends on the altitude at which it is measured.
It is much colder in the Eastern Pamirs. In some regions it is frosty all year round. And the Western Pamirs have a fairly warm climate. There in January the average monthly temperature is positive and there is more rainfall.
Famous glaciers of the Pamirs
- Fedchenko Glacier. It is a real natural phenomenon about 77 km long. It is the largest in the world, if you exclude the glaciers of the North and South Poles. The glacier is located in Central Asia in Tajikistan.
- Bear Glacier. It is also in Tajikistan and lies in the valley of the Khirsdary River. Along the entire body of the glacier are plumes of continuously crumbling rocks. Bear’s upheaval (surge) occurred many times during the 20th century.
Geology of the Pamir Mountains
The Pamirs have a complex geological structure. It consists of limestone and sand, granite, rock crystal and semi-precious stones. In terms of its geology, this mountainous country is divided into several districts and regions.
Communication Routes in the Pamirs
Pamir villages are connected by mountain trails. Building roads here is a very complicated and costly endeavor. The region has a high seismic hazard, with frequent landslides, rockfalls, avalanches, and floods.
In ancient times there were roads that were traveled on foot, by donkeys and camels. To this day, the donkey is the most common animal used to transport passengers and goods. The Pamirs used to be part of the Great Silk Road.
The most famous local road is the Old Pamir Road, built by the Russians during the time of the Russian Empire. This secret military road was built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was designed to move troops through the pass.
A trip along the Old Pamir Tract is the most interesting adventure that tour operators in Tajikistan can offer. Travelers will see snow on the tops of the mountains, unique lakes, high mountain tundra, fast rivers in the canyons, etc.
These tours last for several days, tourists have time to get acquainted with life in the mountain villages of Badakhshan, explore the villages standing on the Silk Road, admire the river Panj, flowing on the border with Afghanistan, Lake Karakul, etc.