The salinity of the Black Sea is much lower than that of the nearby Mediterranean or Red Seas, it looks more like a huge freshwater lake. The large rivers flowing into the Black Sea desalinate its water substantially.
The Black Sea is known for the fact that at great depths it accumulates hydrogen sulfide, so its bottom has not yet been studied in a good way. And just above the hydrogen sulfide layer accumulates water that is much more salty than on the surface of the sea.
What factors influence the salinity of the Black Sea?
Salinity levels in this sea are affected:
- Being in a temperate and subtropical climate.
- Significant watershed area.
- The overflow of fresh water from the rivers flowing into this sea.
- Distant location of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.
- The sea is deep enough.
- Absence of sea tides.
The flow of rivers into the Black Sea
The salinity of water in the Black Sea is relatively low, because. it receives huge volumes of fresh water. The largest river that gives fresh water to the sea is the Danube.
Rivers also provide a lot of water:
- Don et al.
Thanks to these rivers, the water level of the Black Sea is much higher than that of the Atlantic, but lower than the average water level in certain areas of the Mediterranean.
But the water temperature and the percentage of salinity of the Black Sea is significantly lower than in the Mediterranean. This is due to the peculiarities of the climate and the relatively small inflow of fresh water in the Mediterranean.
What is salinity?
The water of any sea contains a huge number of metals, salts, alkalis, etc. Scientists calculate its salinity as a percentage or ppm. A liter of water taken for the study is evaporated, after which the remaining substances are studied and evaluated.
Black Sea salinity in percent
This figure is calculated based on the content of various substances dissolved in water in grams, and is reflected as a percentage of the total mass. The mass of each precipitate is multiplied by 100 grams and divided by 100 percent.
Salinity of the Black Sea in ppm
In ppm the salinity of the sea is counted not in hundredths, but in thousandths. For example, we know from special literature that the salinity of the Black Sea is 17-18 ppm, the average of the World Ocean – 35 ppm, the Red Sea – 42 ppm, etc.
What is the easiest way to determine the salinity of the sea?
There is a relatively simple way of determining salinity, for such a study at home will require a dish resistant to high temperatures, a heater and scales where you can weigh the substances in milligrams.
When performing the calculations, remember that the density of the water of the Black Sea, as any salt solution, is greater than the density of the waters of the Danube River, which means that a liter of seawater has a greater mass than a liter of river water.
Therefore, your calculations will be characterized by approximate figures. So, how much salt is in the Black Sea? This requires material for the study: draw 100 ml of seawater.
Then you need to put the water in a thick cup, heat and boil it over low heat until it evaporates completely. As a result, a light-colored substance will remain on the bottom and walls of the cup. Gather it carefully and determine the weight on the scale.
Relate the mass of the obtained substance to 100 ml of the tested water, then multiply by one hundred. The resulting number will show you the percentage of salinity of the Black Sea. It is important to remember that in different parts of the sea and at different times salinity is also different.
Does the salinity of seawater change?
The salinity of any sea increases dramatically during periods of drought, when the freshwater intake from rivers is greatly reduced. Also the salinity depends directly on the time of year, air temperature fluctuations, human activity, etc.
The saltiest seas on Earth
Dead Sea. This sea seems to be made up of salt – there is 270% of it in the sea. This means that a liter of seawater contains 27 grams of salt. Flora and fauna in such conditions simply can not develop, hence the name of the sea. It is located in Israel.
Red Sea. Known to avid tourists, the sea is located between Arabia and Africa. Its salinity is over 41%. But this does not prevent dolphins and many species of fish, including the Red Sea, from living in the Red Sea. sharks.
Mediterranean Sea. The most famous since ancient times to mankind sea, around which many civilizations originated. Its salinity fluctuates around 40%. Also, the Mediterranean is famous for having the warmest waters (+12C to +25C during the year).
Aegean Sea. This sea is off the coast of Greece, its salinity fluctuates around 38.5%. Seawater has a significant concentration of alkalis, so after bathing it is recommended to wash with fresh river water, so as not to damage your skin.
Ionian Sea. This sea also stretches off the coast of Greece, where it is considered the most salty, about 38%. A great place for children who are just learning to swim, as. is a very dense sea. Water temperature during the year ranges from +14C to +26C.